The Words of the Tsusaka Family
Understanding the Basic Principle of Christianity by Peak Moon Kim: From a Unification Perspective
A thesis by Kazuhiro Tsusaka
Presented to The Faculty of the Unification Theological Seminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Divinity Program 1999
[Note: Peak Moon Kim is another spelling of Beak Moon Kim. They are the same man.]
Chapter I. Peak Moon Kim
Rev. Moon's Words about Peak Moon Kim
Biography and Background of Peak Moon Kim
Peak Moon Kim's Motivation for Writing This Work
Chapter II. The Basic Principle of Christianity and the Divine Principle
The Principle of Creation.
1. The Origin of Creation
2. The Principle of Creation
3. The World of Creation
Comparison with Divine Principle
1. Nature of God
2. Significance of Relatedness
4. Human Responsibility
5. The Spirit World
The Principle of the Fall
1. The Origin of Evil
2. The Principle of the Fall
Comparison with Divine Principle
1. Dualism of Good and Evil
2. Human Hall
3. Physical Sexual Misconduct.
The Principle of Restoration
2. The Doctrine of Christianity
3. The Principle of Restoration
Comparison with Divine Principle
1. The mission of Christ.
2. The Cross.
3. Salvation and Faith
4. The View of History
5. The Eternal Gospel
The Table of Contents of the Basic Principle of Christianity
One day I visited the office of a Korean professor at the Unification Theological Seminary. At that time, I accidentally found a book whose title was Kidikkyo Keunbon Wolli, The Basic Principle of Christianity (BPC), on that professors bookshelf. The author of that book is Peak Moon Kim who was regarded as the central person in spiritual groups in Korean Christianity in the 1940s, which God prepared as the foundation for the Messiah.
BPC is the most important Kim's works. According to Rev, Moon, Peak Moon Kim was a "John the Baptist" type person in God's providence in the 1940s. The Divine Principle (DP) teaches about the providential significance of John the Baptist. However, Unificationists have not known very much about Peak Moon Kim's life and thought until now.
When I opened that book and glanced over it, I was surprised because it seemed to be so similar to the DP. First the table of contents shows the similarity of the structures of the two "Principles. The BPC consists of three parts, like the DP: the Principle of Creation, the Principle of the Fall and the Principle of Restoration. Next, BPC uses a lot of terminology that identical to that of with the DP; yang and yin, the perfection of individual character, the Completed Testament Age, etc. Also, in particular, "the Principle of Fall" interprets Adam and Eves Fall as a sexual crime initiated by the angel, Lucifer, just as in the DP. Moreover, the salvation of humanity is defined as the restoration of Eden, namely the situation before the Fall. I remembered that some opponents of the Unification movement insisted that the DP of Rev. Moon was a plagiarism of this work of Peak Moon Kim.
With regard to this problem, Chryssides has justified the Unificationist crime as follows;
In view of the fact that Sun Myung Moon had completed his first version of the Principle in 1952, and Kim's writings were not published until after the UCs formation, the accusation of plagiarism, can be discounted.
[Chryssides, George D, The advent of Sum Myung Moon, p100]
The Interpretation of Divine Principle was published in 1957, The Original Divine Principle was completed in 1952, while BPC was published in 1958. Hence, the authenticity of Divine Principle can simply be confirmed chronologically. However, it is also a historical fact that Rev. Moon was a member of Peak Moon Kim's monastery during the period of 1945-6. Therefore, the mere chronological comparison is not enough to prove the authenticity of DP. To prove the authenticity of DP, it is necessary to examine the dissimilarity between two principles. Also, we will be able to understand Rev. Moon's identity and value more deeply by analyzing the dissimilarity between DP and BPC. For these reasons, I became strongly motivated to study BPC.
This paper will be divided into two chapters. The first chapter will briefly introduced three points: Rev. Moon's Words about Peak Moon Kim, a biography of Peak Moon Kim and his motivation and purpose for writing the BPC. The Second chapter will summarize and analyze BPC from a Unification perspective. In conclusion, I will try to prove the authenticity and superiority of DP as compared with the work of Peak Moon Kim, the BPC.
Chapter I - Peak Moon Kim
Rev. Moon's Words about Peak Moon Kim
[Sun Myung Moon. The selection of Rev. Sun Myung Moon's speeches. Vol.12 p.122-4, Vol.13 p.133-5, Vol.19 p.262-5, Vol.23 p259-310, Vol.38 p52-91, Vol.47 p145-230, Vol.50 p186-257, Vol.52 p138-62.]
According to Rev. Moon, when World War II ended, if Korean Christianity and the Allied Nations had received Rev. Moon as the Messiah, he could have completed his mission within 7 years. Korean Christians were forced to worship the Jinja (Shinto shrine) under Japanese colonialism. Because of this persecution, Korean Christians were divided in two parts. One was the group which disobeyed the Japanese policy. The other was the group which compromised and followed the Jinja worship. From the Providential viewpoint, the former was an Abel-type group, the latter a Cain-type group. In the Abel camp, there were some spiritual groups which received special revelations. They endeavored to prepare for the messiah's arrival, both internally and externally by religious practice. God prepared the spiritual groups in Korean Christianity to receive the Christ of the Second Advent (fig. 1).
Rev. Moon considers Peak Moon Kim as the providential key person in the position of John the Baptist. Peak Moon Kim was the central figure of the spiritual groups. Rev. Moon divided the spiritual groups into masculine groups and feminine groups. Moreover each group was divided into three levels: formation, growth and perfection (fig. 2). Peak Moon Kim was the third generation for the restoration of Eden in the masculine spiritual groups. He became a disciple of Nam Ju Peak who was the abbot of the Israel monastery. [Nam Ju Peak: he was called "the originator of the spiritual movement." According to Rev. Moon, he was the first generation in the masculine spiritual groups (fig.2).] Moreover after the death of Yong Do Lee, Peak Moon Kim succeeded to Lee's mission spiritually. [Yong Do Lee: he was a famous Korean mystic and revivalist preacher. Rev. Moon regards him as the second generation in the masculine spiritual groups (fig.2).] When Korea was liberated from Japanese sovereignty, he was in the highest spiritual position. Moreover, he had his connection with Seung Man Lee [Syngman Rhee] who was the first President in South Korea. God appointed him to the position of a new John the Baptist.
God gave Peak Moon Kim the revelation that he had to prepare to receive the second coming of the Messiah. Peak Moon Kim established the Israel monastery in Pa Joo, Kyunggido. In October, 1945, Rev. Moon went to the Israel monastery to meet Peak Moon Kim. From April 4, 1945, for 6 months, Rev. Moon stayed there as a leader of Sangdodong Church which belonged to the Israel monastery. It was because he should have inherited Kim's foundation. Kim should have realized Rev. Moon's identity, i.e., his messianic status.
Rev. Moon spent this sacrificial time in the position of a servant of servants for six months. During this period, Rev. Moon had been praying, shedding endless tears in order that Peak Moon Kim could receive him as the Christ of the Second Advent. On Dec. 25, Peak Moon Kim blessed Rev. Moon testifying that "Teacher Moon is the one who inherited the mission as King Solomon." Most members in the Israel monastery had received the revelation that they should follow Sun Myung Moon. If Peak Moon Kim had become one with Rev. Moon, the way by which all Korean Christianity could receive Rev. Moon as the second Messiah would have opened, and Rev. Moon could have connected with the government.
Though Kim testified to Rev. Moon's messianic identity, he did not attend Rev. Moon. Moreover he even stopped people who were about to follow Rev. Moon. As a result, Peak Moon Kim's failure caused the collapse of the last foundation which God had prepared in South Korea.
Biography of Peak Moon Kim
[Choi Chung Hun, The Biography of Peak Moon Kim]
Peak Moon Kim was born on Oct 19, 1917 (according to the lunar calendar) in Gyeongsangbogdo. His father's name was Gang Joo Kim. His mother was Aeum Moon. Peak Moon Kim was their second son (they had four sons and two daughters.) In his childhood, he lived in the countryside near Daegu and his dream was to become a medical doctor. He came to work as a pharmacist in a hospital.
In 1934, when Peak Moon Kim was 17 years old, Nam Jo Kim, who was a devoted member in some women's spiritual group, lead him to the path of faith. Nam Jo Kim has been like the spiritual mother of Peak Moon Kim until she died. That year Peak Moon Kim went to Wonsan (fig.2) to meet Nam Ju Peak who was known as the originator of spiritual movements. Peak Moon Kim was deeply influenced by Nam Ju Peak, he came to respect him and became his disciple. Peak Moon Kim followed Nam Ju Peak even when Nam Ju Peak was kicked out of Jesus' Church because of a scandalous event, the "heavenly marriage". In 1935, Peak Moon Kim went to Chul San with Nam Ju Peak in order to meet Sung Do Kim who was the founder of Sung Joo Church. [Rev. Moon sees her as an Eve-type person, the first generation in feminine spiritual groups (fig 2). Sung Do Kim received some revelations, such as: the root of the Sin was adultery, Jesus did not come to be crucified but came to establish the kingdom of heaven on earth.] At that time Peak Moon Kim took the chair at the founding ceremony of Sung Joo Church in 1935. Though, in the 1940's, Nam Ju Peak ceased to be interested in the spiritual movement, Peak Moon Kim became more aggressive.
In this way, Peak Moon Kim had relationships with the representative leaders of spiritual groups, Nam Ju Peak and Sung Do Kim. Moreover Nam Ju Peak contributed to establishing the New Jesus Church whose leader was Yong Do Lee. Also Ho Bin Heo [Ho Ho Bin] was the founder of the "Inside Belly" Church (Bokjunggyo) which was established as the Pyongyang branch of Sung Joo Church (fig2). [Rev. Moon sees Ho Bin Heo as a Mary-type woman, the second generation among the feminine spiritual groups (fig.2). She inherited the foundation of Sung Do Kim. She received revelations that Christ at the second Advent would be born through her belly.]
Peak Moon Kim entered Joseon theological Seminary in Soul around 1942. When he was in the Seminary, he was tortured by the Japanese government-general because he rejected the Japanese policy of Jinga worship. After that, to escape from danger, he left Seoul and went to Pajoo, Kyunggido. He established the Israel monastery there, after the Korean liberation from Japan.
Around 1945, Peak Moon Kim was well-known in spiritual groups, even in Pyongyang, because some of his disciples lived in Pyongyang. For example, Wol Rye Park also knew Peak Moon Kim's name well. [Rev. Moon sees Wol Rye Park as a mother-type woman, the second generation in feminine spiritual groups (fig.2). She called herself "the wife of Yahweh."]
Moreover, Peak Moon Kim had an experience where he met Jesus (spiritually?) on March 2nd, 1946. This event decided the course of his life. Peak Moon Kim said that he received his mission from Jesus in this revelation. The mission is to proclaim the enlightenment and words given there and the Second Advent of Christ. Since then, in his Church, March 2nd has been enacted as the memorial day on which heaven was opened. Moreover, 1946 was defined as the first year in the Completed Testament Age.
In 1967, he named his church "Pure Water Church (Cheongsugyo)." This church did not aggressively pursue any evangelical activity because they believed that "they have to shut the door of the ark since time had already come." Therefore this church has never expanded its foundation. Finally, Peak Moon Kim died on Dec. 20, 1990 because of a sickness.
Peak Moon Kim married three times during his life. His first wife was Sonae Joo, who also belonged to a spiritual group. They married in 1937 and had a son the following year. Kim had a tragic experience through this wife. She was unfaithful to her husband and bore another man's daughter in 1943. [In those days, Kim was alone in Pajoo to take refuge from Japanese persecution.] He felt severe mental pain for six months. After that trial, he forgave his wife, and they restarted married life. Secondly Kim held "the wedding of the Lamb" on Dec. 25, 1953. In this ceremony, Peak Moon Kim was the bridegroom. His new wife's name was Jeong Ae Kim. She was one of his followers. In 1963, he married his third wife, Yong Sin Weon.
The books written by Peak Moon Kim
Paek Moon Kim wrote only three books: Theology of the Holy Ghost (Sungshin Shinak, 1945), The Basic Principle of Christianity (Kidikkyo Keunbon Wolli, 1958) and Theory of Character Formed by Faith (Sinang inggyeog, 1970).
Theology of the Holy Ghost (Sungshin Shinak,) presents a new interpretation of the Gospel of John. In the plan for salvation formed by the Trinitarian God, each Person of the Trinity fulfills its role in each era in history. Paek Moon Kim divides the history into three eras; the Old Testament Age, the New Testament Age and the Completed Testament age. The providence in the Old Testament age is based on the responsibility of the Father. The New Testament age is considered as the era in which the Son fulfills his role. Finally the Holy Spirit plays the main role in the Completed Testament age. Moreover Theology of the Holy Ghost (Sungshin Shinak) discusses the role of the Holy Spirit in the Completed Testament Age theologically. [Choi Chung Hun, The Biography of Peak Moon Kim, p.68-9]
The Basic Principle of Christianity (Kidikkyo Keunbon Wolli) is the largest work among his three works. It consists of three parts; the Principle of Creation, the Principle of the Fall and the Principle of Restoration. This paper will discuss his work in detail later.
Theory of human character formed by faith (Sinang Inggyeognon) consists of three parts: "the view of essences of faith and the view of actions", "the theory of human character formed by faith and theory of growth" and "the theory of Christian mystery and theory of heresy." [Choi Chung Hun, The Biography of Peak Moon Kim, p.58]
Kim's Motivation and the Purpose of his Work
Kim wrote a short message at the beginning of BPC: "I offer this accomplished mission in front of the Lord who manifested himself for this work in Gangsan, Korea." The mission, he said, was to complete BPC. What was his motivation and purpose for this book? He makes it clear in the foreword to his book. First Kim insists that BPC was necessary for Christian faith today from a historical viewpoint. His other motivation was to solve the problems which Kim experienced in the spiritual movements. Then, both his motivations and his sense of mission were reinforced when he met Jesus Christ. Moreover, Kim regards BPC as the eternal Gospel mentioned in Rev.14:6.
Necessity of BPC from the historical viewpoint
Kim believed that the present day was the age to complete the promise of the New Testament. He called that new era "the Completed Testament Age." According to Kim, though the New Testament age was the era of Jesus Christ, the Completed Testament Age will be led by the Holy Spirit. Then, in this era, the completion of the human being will be achieved and the heavenly kingdom on earth will be established by the guidance of the Holy Spirit (30-1).
Christianity has developed and lasted for two thousand years. Now it has a great foundation, in terms of numbers, which can fulfill the Creation of the new world. However, the real situation is far from ideal. Now Christians are too spiritless (27). He thought that today's Christian needed an essential spiritual movement. The salvation of Christianity is the re-creation to complete human beings. Only the living truth can teach the way to fulfill it. Kim indicates that theology is not sufficiently enough (28). Kim says that the spiritual issues of faith were always related with the theological development. Faith and theology have a relationship like that of the two feet of a man.
Moreover, he emphasizes that the mission of Christianity was not only the salvation of the soul after death but also the perfection of the human being on earth. BPC shows the way how to fulfill this mission of Christianity. In other words, in order that human beings perfect their character, BPC teaches the three fundamental principles, i.e., the Principle of Creation, the Principle of the Fall and the Principle of Restoration (40).
To solve the problems of spiritual movements
As mentioned already, Kim insists on the necessity of a spiritual movement. However most spiritual movements fall into strange phenomena or decline soon after a phase of temporary humanistic enthusiasm. Because of such a situation, Kim could not help wondering about the "grace" in the spiritual movement. He thought that such a spiritual confusion was caused by the undeveloped theology. It is also part of his motivation for beginning to write the BPC (36-7). He believed that only BPC could teach the right course of spiritual movements to complete the human character (45).
Manifestation of Jesus Christ
Kim said that researching BPC was possible only by the Grace and Wisdom of God.
After 12 years of religious life, he experienced a great miracle which promised to give him the grace of wisdom to write BPC. Kim explains, " From a.m. 11:23 to 12:00, March 2nd ,1946, on the mountain of Gangsan, in Gyeonggido, Korea, I met Jesus Christ who manifested himself directly." Then Kim promised to publish BPC in front of Jesus. That grace gave him the spiritual power to start to write the BPC.
Kim regards BPC as the eternal Gospel mentioned in Rev.14:6. It means the new truth which people start to seek for in the era of the fulfillment of God's Will. It shows the way for the perfection of the individual character and indicates the way for the unification of all religions (24, 841). Namely, this book tries to show Kim's special status which he believed Jesus gave him on March 2, 1946.
Chapter II - The Divine Principle and The Basic Principle of Christianity
As already mentioned in the introduction, this chapter will summarize BPC and analyze it from an Unificationist point of view. Both Principles have the same structure, which consists of three parts: Creation, Fall and Restoration. The comparison of the two doctrines will show the authenticity and superiority of DP. First we will discuss the Principle of Creation.
The Principle of Creation
The main purpose of this part, the Principle of Creation, is to investigate the divinity of the Trinity. The author divides the history of Creation into three generations in order to understand the view of the Trinity: pre-Creation, Creation and post-Creation. The view of God in pre-creation clarifies the essence of the Divinity. The view of God in Creation reveals the character of the Divinity of the Triune God. Post-Creation Divinity is the Christian God. Figure 3 explains the divinity of the Trinity according to the conclusions of the author. Kim himself says that the divinity of the Trinity, investigated in this figure, is the purpose of this part, the Principle of Creation (213)
Pre-Creation God (Jn 17)
Creator God (Ge1,Jn1:1-5)
Triune God (Jn16,17)
Christian God (Bible)
Light --> (Righteousness)
The Father -->
Righteousness Old Testament
Word --> (Love)
The Son -->
Love New Testament
Life --> (Goodness)
The Holy Spirit-->
Goodness Completed Testament
Essence of Divinity
Character of Divinity
The Fig 3. The Triune God
The Principle of Creation consists of three sections. Section 1 is the Origin of Creation. Section 2 is the Principle of Creation, which discusses about God in the starting period of Creation. Section 3 is the Universe and the view of God, which discusses the essence and nature of created humanity and the law of the universe. The author insists that without dividing it into three parts, it is impossible to complete Christian Theology.
1. The Origin of Creation (The view of God in pre-Creation)
Understanding the view of the pre-Creation God is the basis for any Christian Theology. Jesus Christ revealed the existence of pre-Creation God through his prayer. John 17 indicates the worldview of the pre-Creation God. Cf. John 17:24 "Father, I want those you have given me to be with me where I am, and to see my glory, the glory you have given me because you loved me before the creation of the world." In this saying of Jesus, the original world of God is expressed as glory. The nature of the pre-creation world shows the essences of the divinity of the Trinity.
1) The nature of the pre-creation world
According to John 17, the glorious pre-creation world has three natures: eternity, love and order (fig 3).
First, the world of pre-creation is a glorious world which is eternal. "For you granted him authority over all people that he might give eternal life to all those you have given him And now, Father, glorify me in your presence with the glory I had with you before the world began. (Jn 17:2-5)"
Next, the original world is the glorious world based on love. "Father, I want those you have given me to be with me where I am, and to see my glory, the glory you have given me because you loved me before the creation of the world (Jn 17:24)." Love always creates new things. Therefore the world of pre-creation is a glorious one which continues to renew eternally through love.
Finally, the glory of the pre-creation world is based on order. The world is glorious because eternity and love become one. "I have given them the glory that you gave me, that they may be one as we are one (Jn 17:22)." This glory was based on the order to create one world.
2) The Trinity of the pre-Creation God
The Triune God also shows Himself in the nature of the glorious world of pre-Creation.
The eternity of the Father of the Trinity is manifested in the eternity of all things. The Divinity was manifested by the glory of the pre-creation world. The Father maintains the created world by His eternal righteousness. The first Person in the pre-Creation Triune God is the subject of eternity who is the basis of glory in the pre-creation world.
The Son, the second Person, is the subject of love which made the pre-creation world glorious. In other words, the love of the Son emerged in the pre-creation world. Love is the motive power to become one. Since love expresses the personality after the Creation, the divinity in pre-Creation is oneness. Love is the essence of oneness. The most essential oneness is between the three Persons in the Trinity. The Son is the subject of oneness.
The glory, which was based on order in the pre-creation world, resulted from the essence of the Holy Spirit, the third Person. While the three Persons in the Trinity entirely possess the glory that arises from the oneness in the pre-Creation world, each Person also has the same. The motivating force of oneness is love, the principle of oneness is order and the basic of oneness is to be righteous and eternal. Order is the divinity of the Holy Spirit among the three Persons.
2. The Principle of Creation (The view of God in the beginning period of creation)
This section entitled "the Principle of Creation" researches the basic principle which created the universe. The Creator God shows His nature through revelation in his work of Creation. It is the view of God in the starting period of creation.
This section is divided into 4 parts. The first part explains the system of the Creation. The Second deals with the reason for the Creation. This part reveals the reason for the system of Creation and the process of Creation. The third part shows the principle according to which God dominates His creatures. Finally, in the fourth part, the Divinity of each Person of the Trinity is revealed.
1) The system of Creation
This section shows three systems or ways of Creation: the systems of Creation by the Word, by the Light and by the Life.
First, God created all things by the Word. "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God ... (Jn 1:1)" The Word is the first system or way to create all things. The Creation by the Word does not mean to form material bodies but to manifest the divinity of the Creator. From the Christian viewpoint of Logos, the Word has the role to manifest the divinity. The Word plays a function as a mediator between the invisible God and the real world.
The second system or way of Creation is the Light. "And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light (Gen 1:3)." The role of the Light is to form the creatures. Since the Light also has both the aspect of reality and that of invisible mystique, it plays the role of a mediator like the Word.
By the roles of the Word and the Light, the Creature was formed. Finally God completed the creature by the Life. According to Gen 2:7, God formed man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being. Since man is the representative of creatures and center of Creation, all creatures were given life in the same way as man. Moreover, creatures can be divide into three kinds of beings: humans, living things, and non living things. The Life fulfills the harmony of the creatures.
2) The reason for Creation
This section, "the reason for Creation", shows how God progressed in His work of Creation after the Light , the Word and the Life (the system of Creation) had begun Creation. Therefore, it proves that "the System of Creation" is reasonable. It also means the process of Creation. This section has three parts: the creation of Time, Space and Humanity.
First, Time was created by the Light. "God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night." And there was evening, and there was morning--the first day (Gen 1:5)" The division between day and night in the first day is the starting point of the real universe.
Secondly, the Word created Space. And God said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters God called the expanse "sky." And there was evening, and there was morning--the second day (Gen 1:6-8)." "Sky", created in the second day, has the role of mediation in the creation of heaven and earth. As mentioned already, the Word has the role of mediation as the way of the Creation. "The role of mediation" was realized as the "sky" in the real universe. Space, the "sky", is the real basis to create the universe.
Next, God completed Humanity by the Life. The role of the Life is to fulfill the mysterious harmony of the creatures. The Life became "the dividing reason" in the universe. Therefore the Life distinguished humans from other beings and completed humanity as the representative standard. Moreover "the dividing reason" created order among the creatures.
3) The Truth of Creation
The basic principle in the universe resulted from the system of Creation, the Word, the Light and the Life. God dominates the universe through that rule. The rule became the truth for the existence of the universe. This section discusses the relationship between the principle for existence and the divinity of the Trinity God. The author analyzes this issue by dividing it into three kinds of relationships, as follows.
a. The Relationship between the Origin for Existence and Dominion
b. The Relationship between the physiology of Existence and the Vocation
c. The Relationship between the Principle for Existence and the Order
This issue is deeply connected with salvation
4) Creation and the Trinity
The doctrine of the Trinity, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, began with Incarnation in Jesus Christ. The Church Fathers have discussed the Trinity from the viewpoint of post-Resurrection. Therefore the Christian view of God did not fully reveal the divinity of the Creator and pre-Creation God.
This book already discussed the view of God in pre-Creation and the view of God in the starting period of creation so as to reveal the characters of three Persons in the Trinity. The view of God in pre-Creation indicates the essence of the divinity of each Person. The view of God in the starting period of creation shows the character of the divinity of each Person. The character of each Person is the attribute of one God.
The First Person -The divinity of the Father.
The essence of the divinity of the Father is eternity. As we already discussed in "the Origin of Creation", the nature of the world in pre-Creation shows the essence of the divinity. One of the natures of the world in pre-Creation is eternity. It shows that the essence of the divinity of the Father, the first Person, is eternity. Moreover, the character of divinity of the first person was realized as the Light in the first day in the work of Creation.
The character of the divinity of the Father is righteousness. The essence of the divinity of the Father, eternity, appeared as the Light to form the creature. "The system of Creation" discussed that the Light plays a role as the tool for Creation. There is an eternal relationship of dominion between God and the created beings. God's dominion means that He is the righteous One.
This character of the divinity of the Father, righteousness, has three attributes: the nature of dominion, judgment and eternity. In the fourth day, the shining bodies, the sun, the moon and stars, appeared due to the role of the Light. It means the nature of dominion of righteousness (Light). Then, the dominator has the right to judge. Moreover righteousness is eternal. Unrighteousness means to lose eternity.
The Second Person-The divinity of the Son.
The essence of the divinity of the Son is oneness by love. John 17:24 says, "Father, I want those you have given me to be with me where I am, and to see my glory, the glory you have given me because you loved me before the creation of the world." The nature of the world of pre-Creation arose from the essence of the divinity. The essence of the divinity of the Son is oneness, which is the essence of love. Moreover when three Persons become one, the Trinity God is glorious.
The character of the divinity of the Son is love. The spiritual essence of the second Person is oneness. The essence, oneness, was expressed as the role of mediation of the Word in the Creation. It becomes love as the character of the divinity of the Son. Love has three attributes: the nature of wisdom, creation and realization.
The Third Person-The divinity of the Holy Spirit.
The essence of the divinity of the third Person, the Holy Spirit, is the nature of order. Christ said that the world in pre-Creation is one world. "I have given them the glory that you gave me, that they may be one as we are one (Jn 17:22)." As discussed already in the divinity of the Son, oneness is the essence of love. On the other hand, the nature of order was also expressed in oneness.
The character of the divinity of the Holy Spirit is goodness. The essence of the Holy Spirit is the nature of order. Therefore, the three Persons of the Trinity have the order of their work. Gen 1:26 says, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness ... " "our image" means the three Persons in the Trinity. On the other hand, the essence of the third Person play a role of Life in Creation. Gen 2:7 says, " the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being." Ge 2:7 was the work of the Holy Spirit to complete Creation. Besides, God recognized the completion of all things by saying "good."
Hence, Kim investigates the divinity of the Trinity God. His conclusion has been expressed in Fig. 3.
3. The World of Creation (the Universe and the View of God)
1) Created Human being
According to Gen 1:26, God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness..." Since God has created human beings in His image, the human quality was decided by the divinity of the triune God. A human being has body and spirit. Therefore Kim insists that human beings have spiritual essence and human character.
There are three kind of spiritual essences: eternal life, reproductive nature and personality. These three essences are the basic quality and basic right of human beings. The salvation of humankind means the restoration of these basic human qualities and rights.
The progenitor of the human race becomes the center of all things because of the spirituality and human character given by the triune God. Human beings have these characters: righteousness, love and goodness. These are the characters of the divinity of the Trinity. According to Rom. 1:17, "The righteous will live by faith." Besides, as mentioned already, goodness means completion, which is the human hope. Therefore The essence of Christian faith is faith , love and hope.
2) Created Humans and Basic Ethics
This section deals with the Basic Ethics of Christianity. According to Kim, the history of the Creation teaches the eternal relationship between God and human beings. This relationship shows the eternal law in creatures. Keeping that heavenly law enables human beings to live eternally.
Kim considers the core of Christian ethics as "order and obedience." "Let there be light," and there was light (Gen 1:3)" The Divine order and human obedience gave rise to Creation. Order means the divinity of dominion. Human obedience is the way to live eternally.
Next, Christian ethics is divided into three types; the ethics of existence, life and order. The spiritual essence and human character of created humans fulfills the ethical world. The ethics of existence is to obey the divine order (Gen 2:17-8). By obeying the order, human beings can keep eternal life. The ethics of life is to fulfill the mission given by God (Gen 1:28). Man can be qualified to receive the blessing by fulfilling the divine mission. Finally, orderly life means to keep the divine commandment (Ex 20:8). It means living for the sake of God.
Salvation means the ethical restoration from the fallen condition. This is the purpose of Christian ethics, "order and obedience."
3) Universal law
The created world is dominated by natural law, which originated the system of the Creation. Natural law prepared the environment in which creatures can exist. God indirectly dominates the universe through natural law. Kim shows three natural laws, as follows;
A. The Law of Alterance of Day and Night
B. The Law of Good and Evil
C. The Law of Alternate Relativity between Heaven and Earth (yang and yin)
A. The Law of Alterance of Day and Night.
In the first day, God created "day" and "night" through light (Gen. 1:5). It caused the law of rotation of day and night which is the origin of the four seasons, astronomical rotation, etc. Therefore this is the eternal law to maintain existence.
B. The Law of Good and Evil.
This is the law of development. Kim insists that the tree of life in Gen 2:9 indicates God who is the origin of life. In the same way, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil means the existence of evil spirits. According to Kim, it does not mean that God created both the good and evil world. It means that Adam could not ignore the existence of evil before the Fall. God cultivates and completes Adam by guarding him against evil. Kim insists that such evil contradictions exist inevitably and for a good result.
C. The Law of Reciprocal Relativity between Heaven and Earth (yang and yin).
This is the resultant law in real existence. God created the heaven on the second day and the earth on the third day. It caused the law of reciprocal relativity between yin (femininity) and yang (masculinity).
Comparison with the Divine Principle view of "the Principle of Creation"
"The Principle of Creation" in DP first reveals the view of God and next discusses the fundamental questions of human life and the universe (15). This theoretical structure is similar with that of BPC. BPC also discusses the view of God in chapter 1-3 and next discusses the issue of faith. The view of God in BPC is based on the doctrine of the Trinity. The orthodox Trinitarian view of God originates from the mysterious experience of faith (the Incarnation and the Resurrection) in the early church. In BPC, Peak Moon Kim tries to reinterpret the orthodox Trinitarian view of God from the viewpoint of Creation. In this sense, the view of God in BPC is closer to orthodoxy than DP. This section will compare the two "Principles of Creation" on four points; the nature of God, the significance of relatedness, significance of the family, and the spirit world. This is because these are very unique points of Unificationist theology as compared with orthodoxy.
The Nature of God
Both "the Principles of Creation" starts by researching the nature of God. However, the two theological approaches are totally different. DP analyzes the divine nature from the natural theological aspect. DP says, "Let us begin by pointing out the common elements which are found universally throughout the natural world (16)." Then DP concludes that God has two kinds of dual characteristics; the dual characteristics of internal nature and external form and the dual characteristics of yang (masculinity) and yin (femininity). God is the subject in whom the dual characteristics are in harmony (19). This concept, "the dual characteristics of God", has a unique aspect as compared with traditional theology and will contribute to theological development.
On the other hand, BPC tries to reveal the divine nature from the revelation given in the Bible. However, Kim's approach to analyze the nature of God is also unique. He reveals the divine nature by dividing the history of Creation into three steps: pre-creation, creation, and post-creation. First, Kim defines the essences of divinity in pre-creation age by interpreting Jesus prayer in John 17. According to BPC, the essences of divinity are eternity, oneness and order. These three essences change the character of each Person of the Trinity in the process of creation. As a result, he insists that the character of the Father is righteousness, the Son is love and the Holy Spirit is goodness. Each view of God is the base of each doctrine. It decides the view of human beings.
BPC does not regard the dual characteristics of yang (masculinity) and yin (femininity) as the divine nature. However, Chapter 3 (the world of creation) deals with the dual characteristics of yang and yin as one of the universal laws. According to Kim, this law appeared when God created heaven and earth. This view of nature came from his Oriental cultural background. It shows that the two doctrines were born in common a culture.
Significance of relatedness
The concept of "the dual characteristics" automatically makes Unificationist theology stress relatedness. DP says that any being exists in paired relationships of subject partner and object partner through give and take action (22). Even God Himself exists, creates and sustains the universe by the forces generated by this give and take action of the dual characteristics within Himself. Therefore, DP deals with each issue through the dynamics of relatedness. Even Satan exists in a relationship to human beings (68). The unique basic concepts of DP (give and take action, the four position foundation, etc.) expresses these characteristics. On the other hand, in BPC, though three persons of the Trinity are one, each person has its own function, and works in turn.
Besides, DP emphasizes the heart of God. In the Unificationist view, God shares His heart with man. He felt joy, sorrow and rage toward men. This is a unique point of Unification thought. BPC never refers to the divine heart. In DP, God created man as a good object partner for joy. It is the purpose of creation DP teaches.
Kim simply had the traditional Christian view of God. BPC regards the basic ethics as divine order and human obedience (291). Though DP also considers obedience an important religious virtue, it stresses the heartistic relationship much more. BPC never explains the heartistic relationship of God and man, which is stressed in DP. It is a major point of difference between DP and BPC.
Unificationism puts family in the center of its theology. Genesis 1;27 says, "So God created man in his own image, etc." From the viewpoint of DP, God's image means the dual characteristics of yang and yin. Therefore the Divine Image manifests itself in the family. DP says, "A family or society so becomes the substantial object partner to God (34)" In DP, the family is the ultimate purpose of creation and restoration.
On the other hand, BPC regards the divine image as the Trinity. Human nature resembles the divinity of the triune God (272). Therefore, the object of restoration is not a family but only the individual human nature. BPC also says that the reproductive nature is the essence, basic quality and basic right of human beings. Furthermore, this concept plays an important role in "the Principle of the Fall." However, BPC deals with this issue on the individual level, while DP stresses the value of the family itself.
In BPC, there is only one passage which expresses a similar concept of the family. Kim says, "If Adam had become one with Eve before the Fall, it would have meant that the divinity of the Trinity was manifested on the earth (329)." This passage is at the end of chapter 3, which discusses the law of reciprocal relativity of yang and yin.
However I doubt whether it is authentic. It is because the concept of yang-yin does not originate from the nature of God but from the process of Creation. Therefore it is inconsistent with the theory of BPC. There is no such a statement in the whole BPC, except this one. Moreover, it slightly interrupts the context. I think that there are two possible ways to interpret this issue. One is that, though Kim originally recognized the theological significance of the family, he could not theorize it in his theology. The other possibility is that he plagiarized Rev. Moon's thought. As we will see later, it is certain that Kim studied Rev. Moon's teaching before publishing BPC, because he attacks the Unificationist view in BPC. In any case, BPC itself has little interest in the theological significance of the family.
The human portion of responsibility
BPC also uses the terminology "the perfection of individual character", as DP does. It means that an individual person acquires the divine natures of the Trinity, righteousness, love and goodness (289). According to Kim, the perfection of individual character is the purpose of one's life of faith. Therefore BPC also stresses perfectionism like DP.
DP clearly insists on the necessity of the human responsibility to reach perfection. DP says, "whether or not human beings attain perfection does not depend only on God's power of creation; it also requires the fulfillment of human responsibility (43)." According to DP, the Fall was caused by the failure of human responsibility: "We can deduce from God's commandment to Adam and Eve  that the first human ancestors were responsible to believe in the Word of God and not to eat of the fruit. Whether or not they disobeyed God and fell depended not on God, but on themselves (43)."
On the other hand, it is not clear whether Kim has the concept of the human portion of responsibility or not. At least, It is clear that Kim denies that human imperfection is the cause of the human fall (469). Moreover he often emphasizes that the work of the Holy Spirit is to complete creation (108). He also stresses human effort. In discussing salvation, he says "salvation can be fulfilled not only by God's responsibility but by the cooperation of God and man. (750)." However, in spite of this emphasis on human effort, as a whole, he ignores (or avoids) the concept of the human portion of responsibility, in order to stress God's grace.
The Spirit World
DP discusses the spirit world in session 6, "the Incorporeal World and the Corporeal World Whose Center is Human Beings". Young Oon Kim wrote about it as follows.
Unificationist teaching about the spirit world may seem like a strange departure from conventional Christian thought. For one thing, theologians ordinarily treat the doctrine of the destiny of the individual as part of eschatology. Unification theology by contrast makes faith in human immortality an essential feature of its doctrine of creation. We do not simply continue to exist after death. From the beginning and throughout our lives, we live in both worlds [Kim, Young Oon. Unification Theology. New York: HSA-UWC, 1987, p.69.]
Like the orthodox Christian view, BPC does not mention the spirit world in "the Principle of Creation". Peak Moon Kim also believes that the human body would have lived eternally with the spirit if it had not been for the human Fall, and that death of the body was caused by the Fall (501). He discusses the spirit world in "the principle of Restoration", and only as the object of salvation (750).
The Principle of the Fall
1. The Origin of Evil.
1) The Fall of the Angel
"The angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their own home--these he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day (Jude 1:6)". Angels are at the top of the whole spiritual creation because of their function and characteristics. However, though they were created as retainers who assisted God, they are not equal with human beings who are God's children. Lucifer is one of four archangels. Since his function was to be an assistant of God, he is closest to God. However he envied human beings because they had a physical body, the name of God's children and the privilege of reproduction. This archangel, Lucifer, became an evil spirit.
Before we analyze the Fall of the angel, we must clarify when the Fall of the angel happened. Though it is difficult to answer this question, at least the angel had become an evil spirit before God created the universe. We have already studied it in "the Origin of Creation". Therefore we need to understand the worldview in pre-creation to understand the cause
The Fall of the Angel and the origin of Evil Nature
First, the Fall of the archangel is clear because the Bible confirms it. What caused the Fall of the angel? Also, what is the origin of evil nature? The Scripture reveals the origin of the evil natures which caused the Fall. Making clear what evil natures are means to reveal the identity of evil and to define what evil is. According to Kim, there were three evil natures which caused the Fall of the angel: arrogance (or pride), disobedience, and separation.
Arrogance or pride:
"Your heart became proud on account of your beauty, and you corrupted your wisdom because of your splendor... (Ezek 28:17)." According to "the Origin of Creation", the world in pre-creation had the nature of glory which was a divine essence. Lucifer also was so beautiful because of that divine essence that his heart became proud. This misunderstanding resulted from his intelligence. Moreover, it made him have self-love. Also he came to be arrogant. Then, his pride made him betray God. Also, this step can be regarded as the Fall of intelligence.
"you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient. (Eph 2:2)." Originally, the angel had an obedient nature, because he was a servant of God. However after the angel's intelligence made him have the evil nature of pride, he started to disobey God. The evil nature which appeared in this step was disobedience. Also, this second step means the Fall of human character.
"The angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their own home (Jude 1:6)." The angel abandoned the quality and position of angel in the final step of the Fall. It meant to separate from his mission. Also, it means that this step was the Fall of quality. Thus he destroyed the order of the divine world.
2) The Fallen Angel (Evil Spirit)
The Archangel became an evil spirit through the process mentioned already. The Fall of the angel happened in the pre-creation age. Therefore, when Adam and Eve were in Eden, God had already commanded them not to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil in order to give them a warning about the temptation by the evil spirit.
After the fallen angel separated himself from the divine world, he stood against God and came to have the function of an evil spirit. The Bible calls the evil spirit an evil god, ruler in the air, and god of death. These names express the characters of the fallen angel.
(Eph 6:12): Evil spirit has power as an eternal evil God. Then he stood against God. He continues to work as a subject of evil.
Ruler in the air
(Eph 2:2): Evil spirits are always drifting in the air. "In the air" means the evil spirit's position and quality which he works to destroy unification.
God of death
(I Cor 15:26): God created being from nothing. On the other hand, an evil spirit makes being into nothing. It means that evil spirits give human beings death. Evil spirit is a god of death.
3) The Nature of the World of Evil Spirits
"Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters (Gen 1:2)." Formless and empty, darkness express the nature of the world of evil spirits. Formless means disorder. Since empty means that the evil spirit is god in the air, it leads to destroy unification. Dark means death.
2. The Principle of the Fall
1) The Trinity of Evil Spirits
After the angel became an evil spirit through the Fall, he came to have the character of an evil God. Since the evil spirit stood against the Triune God, he also came to work like the Trinity to fight against God. Quoting Rev 20:2, the author named the first person of the evil spirit serpent, the second person Satan and the third person devil. "He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil, or Satan, and bound him for a thousand years (Rev 20:2)." Fig. 4 explains the concept of the evil trinity.
Pre-Creation God (Gen1:2)
Works Toward Men (Rev 16:13)
Evil Nature (Bible)
False Prophet -->
Fig 4. The Evil Trinity.
The Serpent is in the position of the first person, the Father, of the trinity of evil spirit. For the first time, evil spirit appeared as a serpent in the real world. Though the serpent was a real animal, evil sprit used his body as a mask to fight against God. While God is the Father of Life, the serpent appeared as an evil father. He became the eternal evil father of humankind. His evil nature has been inherited by all humankind through evil lineage.
The character of the serpent, the first person of the evil trinity is arrogance or pride, while the character of the Father of the triune God is righteousness.
The Bible expresses the character and function of this first person of the evil trinity, the serpent, as that of a dragon (Rev 16:13). The dragon symbolizes the king of the evil world. He has authority to dominate his evil spirits and his people. He fights against God who works as the Father (Rev12:7).
Satan is in the position of the second person, the Son, of the trinity of evil spirit. Jesus said to Peter in Matt. 16:23, "Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me; you do not have in mind the things of God, but the things of men." Evil spirit indirectly uses human bodies as Satan, the second person of the evil trinity to work against God. Satan stands against the Son and prophets.
The character of the second person of the evil trinity, Satan, is separation. Satan works to destroy the relationship between God and human beings and the relationship between man and man.
Satan concretely appears as false prophets (Rev 16:13). Satan as false prophets has the function to stand against the Son, Christ.
The Devil is in the position of the third person, the Holy Spirit, of the trinity of evil spirit. The devil has the evil spiritual function of opposing the Holy Spirit. He influences human beings spiritually. The character of the Devil is disobedience (Eph2:2). While the Holy Spirit has a relationship to Christians, the devil relates with those who have a brutal nature (Rev 16:13).
2) The History of the Fall in Eden
The Origin of the Human Fall
The human Fall was initiated by an evil spirit. This section will discuss the environment and the situation in Eden to revel the motivation of the human Fall. What was the purpose for which the evil spirit seduced human beings? What is the way to fulfill that purpose? Also, why did the evil spirit use human beings to fulfill that purpose? We will study these questions in this section.
What is the motivation of the evil spirit that caused the human Fall? His first motivation is the destruction of the world created by God. Second, it is to create his own world. Therefore, evil spirit intended to dominate all humankind who are the descendants of Adam and Eve from the beginning of the human Fall.
The Fall never happened because human beings were not perfect or God was not omnipotent. Also, the non-interference of God is not the cause of the Fall. The Fall of Adam and Eve happened because they had the privilege of reproduction. Each of the three beings in Eden, God, Man and evil spirit, had his own privilege. God has the privilege of creation. Evil spirit can be regarded as a being whose privilege is destruction. Human privilege is reproduction. Since only human beings have this privilege of reproduction, even God can not fulfill His Will without human beings. Therefore, evil spirit seduced human beings to use their human privilege, reproduction, for his purpose. As already mentioned, his purpose is the destruction of God's Will and the creation of his own world
The Nature of the Fruit of Good and Evil
The author insists that the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil was not the fruit of an actual tree. Adam and Eve committed a crime with the lower half of their body. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil means evil spirit. The tree of life symbolizes God who is the origin of life. The fruit of the tree means the privilege of reproduction of Adam and Eve. If they had followed God's order, they could have had eternal life as a result. However if they followed the other order, it would result in death. To eat the fruit of life means to belong to God. To eat the fruit of good and evil means that Adam and Eve follow evil spirit.
The Crime of the Fruit of Good and Evil
Evil spirit seduced Eve to use her passive nature of a woman. Eve had a physical sexual relationship with the evil spirit who appeared as a serpent. This sexual misconduct did not only deprive Eve of her chastity but also caused the human race to have carnal desire in the evil lineage.
3) The Sin of the Progenitor of Humankind
This section will discuss the religious significance of the human Fall. What did God consider as guilt in the human Fall? Kim tries to reveal the significance of human sin. Kim insists that Adam and Eve committed three kinds of sins against God: the betrayal toward God, the violation of God's commandment, and the separation from God.
The Betrayal toward God
From the viewpoint of heavenly Ethics, the behavior of Adam and Eve in Eden was regarded as a sin of betrayal toward God. Gen 3:11 says, " Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?" This Biblical word teaches that Adam and Eve did not keep God's order. Keeping divine order is based on heavenly ethics according to "the Principle of Creation". It means that Adam and Eve betrayed God.
The Violation of God's commandment
"For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil. (Gen 3:5) " Adam and Eve wanted to be the same as God. This destroyed the order between God and human beings. Also, it means that Adam and Eve violated God's commandment.
The Separation from God
Gen 3:11 says, "Who told you that you were naked? ..." This action of Adam and Eve means that they separated from God. Finally, that action was also judged guilty. The separation from God means death.
4) The Steps of the Fall
This section will illustrate the process by which human beings lost their quality and their relationship with God. Kim divides the process of the Fall into three steps. In the first step, human beings lost their spirituality. The second step is the Fall of the human character. Finally, the physical body was lost by the Fall.
The first step is the Fall of Adam's spirituality. As discussed above, the criminal act of Adam and Eve was the betrayal of God. Then, they destroyed heavenly order. Moreover they separated from God. At the same time, they lost their spiritual essence, position and mission in front of God. It means that Adam and Eve lost their spirituality which was their human quality. In this step, they also lost the relationship between God and human beings.
The second step happened in the second generation. Cain killed his brother. After this event, his human character became worse. It was the fall of the human character. While, in the first step, human beings lost the relationship between God and them, this second step, the fall of the human character, was an issue between man and man.
The final step, the fall of the physical body, happened in the third generation, that of Cain's Descendents. "The sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they married any of them ..."My Spirit will not contend with man forever, for he is mortal; his days will be a hundred and twenty years (Gen 6:2-3)." This means complete spiritual and physical death. In the first and second step, human beings lost spirituality and character. In this final step, they became carnal human being who have a brutal nature.
Carnal human beings have three characteristics. First, Carnal human beings have evil lineage. Next, they have lusts of the flesh. Finally, they have a carnal intention, which controls human behavior to satisfy their lust.
Comparison to the Divine Principle and "the Principle of the Fall
Like DP, BPC insists that the human Fall was an illicit sexual relationship with the angel. Kim also considers that fallen human beings belong to the evil lineage. Are these his original concepts or not? According to Chryssides, Korean Christian spiritual groups in the period of 1930-50 had similar concepts. Kim might possibly either have received the same revelation as Rev. Moon or rearranged the spiritual groups' teachings. However, though some people received similar revelations, their interpretations would diverge because of the difference is their thoughts. Kim's interpretation is also different from DP on the same points. Fig. 5 indicates Kim's interpretation of the process of the Fall. [Chryssides, George D, The advent of Sum Myung Moon. New York: St Martin's Press, 1991 Chryssides researched the precursors of Unificationist, namely: the Holy Lord Church, the "inside belly" church, the New Jesus Church, the Israel Monastery etc.]
Dualism of good and evil
Kim's view is close to a dualism of good and evil. BPC insists that before the creation of the universe, evil spirit has already existed in the heavenly world. [Kim calls the fallen archangel "evil spirit" while DP calls it Satan. In BPC, Satan means the 2nd person of the evil trinity] Kim clearly distinguishes between the Fall of the angel and the human Fall. In Kim's view, the Archangel became an evil spirit in the pre-creation age because of his arrogance caused by ignorance. According to Kim, Genesis 1:2 proves the existence of evil in pre-creation age: "Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters." Moreover, in Genesis 2:17, God gave the Commandment to Adam and Eve, thus warning them against evil. On the other hand, DP never discusses the pre-creation world. DP says that the Archangel fell at the same time as human beings. In this view, evil occurred after God created Adam and Eve.
Moreover, Kim has a unique view of the Evil Spirit, which he calls the evil trinity. This characteristic of BPC makes the confrontation between good and evil clearer. According to Kim, evil spirit has three masks: Serpent, Satan and Devil. Fig 6 indicates the hostile relationship between God and evil spirit. Each person of the evil trinity has its own function and character to stand against each person of the Trinity.
The Holy Spirit
The Evil Trinity
Three persons Rev12:9
Evil Character Eze28:17, Eph2:2, Ju1:6
Fig 6 Comparison of the Trinity and the evil trinity.
Also, it is noteworthy that Kim deals with "the law of good and evil" in "the Principle of Creation"(323-6). According to Kim, that law is needed to cultivate human beings, and the evil contradiction is inevitable to complete human beings. In our discussing of the motivation and process of the human Fall, the difference of the two doctrines will become clearer.
The Human Fall
BPC says that evil spirit lead to the human Fall. He subdued Eve in order to destroy God's Will and create his own world. [Though BPC also refers to the angel's jealousy toward man, it does so in one passage only (378).] Moreover he used human beings for his purpose. While BPC stresses the confrontation between God and evil spirit, as already explained, DP focuses on the relationship centering on human beings. In DP, the first cause of the Fall is the angelic jealousy towards human beings:
Lucifer, feeling as though he were receiving less love than he deserved, wanted to grasp the same central position in human society as he enjoyed in the angelic world, as the channel of God's love. This was why he seduced Eve, and this was the motivation of the spiritual fall (64).
In DP, Lucifer does not have a confrontation with God but with human beings. The Archangel also desires to receive God's love. Therefore the situation in which Satan stands against God was caused as a result of the Fall; it was not his first purpose.
How does this difference arise? The main reason is that DP has the concept of the human portion of responsibility. DP insists that:
God gave the commandment not to the Archangel but only to the human beings. God wished to exalt the dignity of human beings as bestowed by the Principle of Creation, which entitled them to stand as God's children and govern even the angels (67).
Therefore, DP shows that human beings, not angels, have the primary responsibility for the Fall. The Fall was caused by the failure of human responsibility. Moreover, DP explains that even God can not intervene in the Fall in spite of his omniscient and omnipotent nature (129-32).
On the other hand, BPC objects to the idea that human imperfection and God's non-omnipotent or non-intervention are not cause of the Fall (468, 481). [It is sure that Kim denies these Unificationist doctrines intentionally.] According to Kim, Adam and Eve were already completed before the Fall, so that they had the right of reproduction, which was symbolized by "the fruit". [The Tree of life symbolizes God, and the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil symbolizes the evil spirit. To eat the fruit of the Tree of life means to get eternal life, and to eat the fruit of the Tree of good and evil means to belong to evil (475-83).] Evil used this fruit (the right of reproduction), which only human beings possess, to destroy God's Will and to create his world (474-82).
This difference gives the two doctrines their decisive influence. Since human beings failed in their responsibility, the theory of restoration through indemnity comes into existence (176 DP). In DP, to restore human beings, God and fallen men can not ignore Satan's accusation. Therefore, DP regards the course of Restoration as the course for bringing Satan into submission (225). However, BPC automatically comes to focus on the relations of God and man to restore the human characters of divinity.
Physical sexual misconduct
In DP, the human Fall took place in two dimensions: the spiritual and the physical. The first step of the human Fall between the Archangel and Eve was a spiritual sexual misconduct (63). However BPC insists that the sexual relationship between the evil spirit and Eve was not spiritual but physical (485). [I want to take notice that Kim seems to stress " the physical" intentionally. I guess that he has a sense of competitiveness toward Unificationist view.] According to Kim, the serpent is a real animal, and the Archangel used his flesh to seduce Eve. This difference is also a very noteworthy point.
DP argues that since human beings fell both spiritually and physically, salvation is accomplished from both the spiritual and physical aspects. From this aspect, Unification theology asserts that Jesus could not attain physical salvation through redemption by the Cross, because his body was invaded by Satan. Therefore Christ must come again to fulfill both spiritual and physical salvation (118-9). This is a core Unificationist teaching.
Conversely, BPC emphasizes the absolute necessity of the Cross for salvation and strictly attacks the view which argues the limit of salvation through redemption by the Cross (657). According to Kim, salvation was accomplished through redemption by the Cross. Next, human beings are completed by the work of the Holy Spirit.
Hence, Kim denies the two dimensions of the Fall, the physical and the spiritual. However, he has a unique concept of the steps of the Fall. He divides the human Fall into three steps: the first, second and third generations. The Fall of the first generation means that Adam and Eve lost their spirituality. The second is the Fall of the human character which was lost by Cain's killing Abel. [Kim seems to believe that Cain was the son of evil spirit physically (486).] The Final step is the Fall of the physical mind which means that the human mind became carnal. It means death. [As mentioned already, Kim believes that human being lost eternal physical life because of the Fall of Adam. The death in this case means that the human mind became a carnal one (Genesis 6:3).]
The Principle of Restoration
According to Kim, Salvation is to restore the separation from God. Therefore Christ came to earth as the second Adam. The final purpose of salvation is the restoration of Eden. Therefore, Christ taught "the Principle of Restoration". "For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be the glory forever! Amen. (Rom11: 36) " First, this part will discuss Christology, Faith and Salvation from the viewpoint of Restoration, and next, introduces the view of God, life and the world of Restoration.
John 17:3 says, "Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent." Accordingly Christology is the fundamental issue of theology. First we will discuss the Incarnation.
1. The Incarnation
This section is divided into three parts: the Conception by the Holy Spirit, the Incarnation of "the Word", and the only begotten Son.
The Conception by the Holy Spirit
The Holy Conception indicates the spiritual significance of the Incarnation. It is the most mysterious issue about Christ. Generally it proves the divinity of Christ. God showed His omnipotent through this event.
Moreover, this event, the Holy Conception, is a proof and revelation that God works as the Trinity. Though the Bible seems to indicate the three work of only the Holy Spirit, Christ's Conception was fulfilled by the works of the three persons of the Trinity, just like Creation was. In the Creation, the Father (1st person) created all things through the Son, the Word. Also, the Holy Spirit completed human beings. In the same way, in the Holy Conception, the Father continued to predict the Incarnation during the Old Testament age. Christ is the Incarnation of the Word, which was fulfilled by the Holy Spirit. Thus, the Trinity orderly worked as one in not only the Creation, but also the Restoration.
The Incarnation of "the Word"
"The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:14)." This saying of Jesus reveals his existence in pre-Incarnation and his relationship to human beings. It proves that Jesus was the Son, the 2nd Person, of the Trinity. Moreover, Christ is the man who was created as divine. He is the model of created humans to save human beings.
Only begotten Son
The name of only begotten Son (Jn 1:14) indicates the purpose of the Incarnation. Christ was the first Son since the Creation, i.e., he was the second Adam. Therefore, the purpose of the only begotten Son is to restore the original relationship between God and human beings, which was lost by the Fall.
2. The Functions of Christ
Christ has two aspects: Divine and human. This section will discuss the function of Christ from these two aspects.
Divine Function of Christ
Christ came to the earth not only to go to the Cross, but also to connect human beings to the Holy Spirit. He is not only the way through which human beings return to God because of the grace of the Cross, but also the way through which God comes to seek for human beings.
By the way, the divine function of Christ is clearly different from the one of the Holy Spirit. Christ is the savior for all humankind. On the other hand, the Holy Spirit is God for only those who have accepted the Atonement by the Cross. While baptism of water means the Atonement, baptism of the Holy Spirit means eternal life.
Next, though the main purpose of Christ is the Atonement, for which he was incarnated, His work in the spiritual world is also significant. The Resurrection means a turning point in the spiritual world. The Resurrection is the first liberation from the death in human history. The Resurrection is the starting point to eternal life. Before the Resurrection, human being would not go to heaven, but only to paradise.
Human Function of Christ
The human function of Christ is revealed by his behavior before the Cross. At the Last Supper, Jesus predicted that he would be crucified (Lk 22: 20). He fulfilled his promise, the Cross. It means that he was a man of his word. It shows that Jesus is the completed man who is the Word incarnated. Next, his prayer as Gethsemane shows that though the Cross was the God's Will, he had the choice to reject it. In Gethsemane, Christ, as a completed man, chose the way of the Cross to save human beings by Himself. Finally, on the Cross, Christ forgave and loved his enemies in spite of his pain. Though he was a human being, his heart is beyond that of humans.
3. The Cross
"For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God" (1 Cor 1:18). The Cross symbolizes the Atonement, and it is the object of the faith. The Cross only atones for the original sin and the past sins of believers only. However, the Cross cannot remove the fallen nature of human beings. The Cross never makes irresponsible people innocent.
However the Cross is necessary in order for Christ to save human beings. Christ completed his work of Salvation through the Cross. The faith of the Cross is the only way for eternal salvation. If faith separates the principle of the Cross, it is not an orthodox Christian brief. Christ incarnated because of the necessity of the Cross. Therefore, that is why Jesus could not avoid the Cross. If Jesus were not Christ, he could have avoided the way of the Cross. However, he could not avoid the Cross because he was Christ.
Next, the Holy Communion means the effect of the Cross. The Cross is to atone for original sin and to forgive the past sins of believers. However the effect of the Holy Communion means not only the Atonement by Christ's death, but also the eternal life by Christ's resurrection. "Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him (Jn 6:56). To eat Christ's flesh, namely to receive the Communion, means to restore the crime by which Adam and Eve ate the fruit of good and evil. Moreover, the Holy Communion makes human beings feel Christ's love. Human character is improved by feeling that love.
2. The Doctrine of Christianity
This section will discuss the basic Christian teachings on faith and salvation from the viewpoint of Restoration.
To understand the essence and practice of faith, we must interpret the origin of faith. The origin of faith is to be formed in the Creation and the Fall. Though originally Adam and Eve lived freely in a righteous relationship with God, they broke the divine order by misusing their freedom. Therefore, God made the Israelite law, which restricts freedom, in order to prevent a worse Fall. On the other hand, God foretold the faith through Abraham. However, human beings became worse because of the law. Faith is neither the whole freedom of the human progenitor, nor the perfect control of the Old Testament age. Faith is the way to restore the righteous relationship to God.
Next, what are the object of Christian faith? There are three objects of faith: the Holy Conception (the Incarnation), the Cross (the Atonement), and the Resurrection (eternal life). First, faith in the Incarnation of Christ restores the righteousness toward God, which was lost in the Fall. Next, faith in the Atonement means to repent for the sins and to feel Christ's love. Thirdly, faith in the Resurrection gives us the hope for eternal life.
Thus, these three objects of faith agree with the Paul's system of faith, i.e., faith, hope, and love. "Now faith, hope, and love abide, these three; and the greatest of these is love (1 Co 13:13)." It means that Christian faith restores the three characters of the human progenitors: righteousness, love and goodness. Fig. 7 shows the system of Christian belief. Namely, faith becomes the human characteristics: righteousness, love and goodness. Moreover, since these human characters were caused by the essences of the divinity, the ultimate object of Christian faith is the divinity of the Trinity.
The Trinity |
Original Nature |
Xn Teaching |
The Father -->
The Son -->
The Holy Spirit-->
The Person |
Fig. 7 The System of Faith
The characteristics of Christianity are the atonement and the salvation of spirits. To analyze the principle of the Redemption, we must know how to determine the sins and forgive them. What is a sin? Sin means to infringe on the divinity. Therefore, sins are decided by the divinity and human criminal acts. The characters of divinity are righteousness, love and goodness. These became the characters dominating humankind. Therefore, infringing on God's Will means to sin. The betrayal toward God's righteousness became the root of evil nature which is transmitted by lineage. Also, human beings came to have lust because of the crime of love in Eden. As a result, human intentions also became evil. Therefore, the essences of faith is faith, love and hope. This faith is the way for salvation. Fig. 8 shows the relations of sins and the salvation by faith.
The human Fall
Betrayal toward --> God
| Faith -->
Separation from --> God
| Love -->
Disobedience of --> God's commandment
| Hope -->
Fig. 8 Salvation by faith
3. The Principle of Restoration (The Significance of Restoration)
Historical facts and revelations in the Bible prove the concept of Restoration. Salvation of fallen man is to restore the quality of human beings. God prepared the way to restore the relationship between God and human beings, which is the basis of human quality.
1. Demonstration of Restoration
There are several proofs that the human spirituality is restored.
a) Breathing the Holy Spirit into Adam and Christ's breathing of the Holy Spirit
When Adam was created, God breathed the breath of life into his nostrils. Because of it, Adam came to have an eternal divine spirit. In the same way, Jesus also breathed the Holy Spirit into his disciples; "he breathed on them and said, "Receive the Holy Spirit (Jn 20: 22)." This shows the restoration of the relationship between the Holy Spirit and Human beings.
b) "Now the dwelling of God is with men, and he will live with them. They will be his people, and God himself will be with them and be their God (Rev. 21:3)." This word of the Bible shows the restoration of the world in which human beings become one with God.
c) The tree of life in Eden and the tree of life in the new heaven and earth
"Blessed are those who wash their robes, that they may have the right to the tree of life and may go through the gates into the city (Rev 22:14)." Adam and Eve rejected the tree of life in Eden. It symbolizes death. The tree of life in the new heaven and earth means to restore eternal life. It is the restoration of basic human right.
d) Christ as the second Adam
Jesus Christ came to the earth as the "second Adam". This name shows his messianic mission to restore the position of Adam.
Also, there is a proof of the restoration of the human character. Christian doctrine itself means restoration. "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life (Jn 3:16)." According to this saying of Jesus, those who believe in Christ can get eternal life. The death of human beings was caused by the Fall. It was the betrayal toward the righteousness of God. Faith restores it. As already mentioned, the essences of Faith are faith, love and hope, which are original human characters to be restored.
2) The World of Restoration
Finally, this section will discuss the view of God, life and the world of restoration.
The View of the God of Restoration
"I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End (Rev 22:13)." This word means that the God of restoration works as the Trinity to complete the initial work.
"I am the Alpha and the Omega": Alpha means the age of the Creation and Omega means the age of the restoration. According to "the Principle of Creation", in Creation, the Father started to work by Light, the Son (Word) realized Creation, and the Holy Spirit gave Life to complete human beings. In the same way, in the history of restoration, the Father worked to send as Christ from heaven through prophets, the Son became incarnated as the Christ as announced by prophecy and the Holy Spirit competes the work of salvation.
"I am the First and the Last": The First means Creation and the Last restoration. Also, this word explains that God dominates time or history. Each Person of the Trinity works in one era. The Father lead the work as the God of the Law in the Old Testament Age. The Son worked as the Christ in the New Testament Age. Finally, the Holy Spirit leads to complete the salvation.
"I am the Beginning and the End": This word means that God does not only create all things but also restore all things. Finally God will restore everything as Rev 21:5 says: "I am making everything new!"
The God of restoration is not only in heaven but also with human beings. The former is related to the kingdom of heaven and spiritual eternal life. The latter God builds the kingdom on earth and lives with humans eternally.
The View of Life of Restoration
With regard to the view of life of restoration, human beings come to restore the subconscious, mission and order.
Matt 4:4 says, "Man does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God." This saying shows the restoration of the subconscious. This means the transition from life on bread, namely physical desire, into life on God's word. For it, the truth which gives eternal life is necessary. Though this truth was the Bible, nobody did not know its real meaning. Therefore, in the era of restoration, people comes to seek the eternal Gospel which reveals the new view of life. Namely, the eternal Gospel teaches how to restore the relationship between God and man and eternal life.
Next, the restoration of mission means the transition from humanism into Godism.
Moreover, human beings come to restore heavenly order between God and man, man and man and man, and all things.
The Worldview of Restoration
The history of the Bible can be regarded as the process to restore a new ideal world. This session will analyze the Biblical history from the political viewpoint. Kim divides the history of the Old Testament into three eras: the old era, the middle era, and the last era.
First, the old era is the age from Abraham until Joshua. The political system of this era is theocracy. In this era, God has disciplined the Israelites in order to build a theocratic nation in Canaan. This ideal of Canaan is the origin and ideal of politics.
Next, the middle era is the age from Joshua until Samuel. In this era, people came to choose the leaders who were called Judges. The Israelite thinking changed from Godism into humanism in this period. According to Kim, it meant a change for the worse. The Israelite thinking in this era became the origin of democracy. It is because democracy is like the system of this era on the point that people choose their leader.
The last era is the period from King Saul until King Zedekiah in the Southern Kingdom (Zedekiah was the final king in Judah). The political system of this era was monarchy. Kim said that monarchy represents the worst corruption in Biblical history.
Finally, since it came to be impossible for God to indirectly control human beings through politics because of their extreme corruption, he sent Christ to save them.
The political systems from Christ until modern times has been monarchy. From modern times on, democracy started to appear. This is the phenomenon to restore the Israelite history of 2000 years. From the historical viewpoint of Restoration, democracy is the transitional period from monarchy to theocracy. Democracy is a better system than monarchy, which is the worst one. However, democracy has its contradictions, which are competition and confrontation.
Kim insists that two kinds of revolution will happen for Restoration: internal and external revolutions. Internal revolution means a religious one. External revolution means a political one. First, when World War III, the Gog and Magog War (Rev 20: 8), will happen, evil spirits in the spiritual world and the anti-theistic nations will be judged. After that, a religious revolution will cause a revival of Christianity. At the same time, a political revolution will judge anti-theistic nations and the unrighteousness of theistic nations, and will expose the problems of democracy. The revival of Christianity will develop into the unification of religions by the eternal Gospel. Finally, all thought and faith will be unified by Godism. Human consciousness will change physical desire into spiritual desire. This is the world of Restoration, the new heaven and new earth.
Comparison with the Divine Principle and "the Principle of Restoration"
First, let us compare the two Christologies. Both Christologies have a common idea, i.e., that Jesus Christ came as the second Adam. Jesus mission was to restore the failure of the first Adam. From this viewpoint, BPC insists that Jesus came to restore the original relationship of God and man, which Adam lost in the Fall (620-22).
DP has no objection on this point. However, DP makes Jesus mission clearer; it is to restore the three great blessings which are the purpose of Creation (272). DP analyzes Jesus identity from this aspect. Therefore, DP concludes that Jesus is not God but a human being who completes the purpose of Creation (168). Moreover, DP insists that Jesus had to come as a human being so that he might become the True Parent who can gives rebirth to human beings (166).
On the other hand, though Kim refers to Jesus mission as that of a human being, he stresses the Incarnation like orthodox Christianity doctrine (612-22). For Kim, the conception by the Holy Spirit shows Jesus divinity. Moreover, John 1:14 proves that Jesus is the second person of the Trinity:
The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.
However, DP does not touch the logic of the Holy Conception, and insists that John 1:14 means "Jesus is a man in whom the Word comes alive"(167).
As we have discussed above, DP is totally different from BPC in its view of the Cross. DP regards Jesus Cross as a secondary providence to save human beings because of the faithlessness of John the Baptist and the Jews (122-137). DP insists on the limits of Salvation through the Redemption by the Cross. Jesus laid the basis for spiritual salvation by his resurrection through the redemption of the Cross. Therefore, Jesus must come again on earth to uproot original sin and to complete the work of physical salvation (119). On the other hand, BPC asserts that the Cross was absolutely necessary in order for Jesus to save human beings. The Redemption of the Cross atones for the past sins of believers including original sin. However, it does not mean to make even irresponsible people innocent because the cross cannot remove the fallen natures (646-660). Also, Kim denies the Unificationist view in regard to John the Baptist (262). [This passage is in from the Principle of Creation. It is certain that he intentionally attacks the Unificationist view.] Kim says, "though John the Baptist did not attend Jesus, it does not mean that he was faithless. His mission was different from Jesus. [Kim explains that John the Baptist belongs to the Old Testament Age which was guided by the Father, the 1st Person of the Trinity. Jesus is the Son who leads the New Testament Age. Therefore John was in a position where he could not work with Jesus.]
Salvation and Faith
BPC defines sin as the infringement on divinity. The Characters of the divinity are righteousness, love and goodness. The human fall infringed on these characters of the divinity. As a result, human beings came to have unrighteous lineage, lust and evil intention. According to Kim, these sins can be forgiven by faith in Christ. Faith in the Incarnation restores the righteousness toward God. Faith in the Redemption by the Cross makes human beings repent of their sins and feel the holy love of Christ. The faith of the Resurrection gives human beings hope. Also, Kim stresses that salvation cannot be fulfilled only by God's responsibility. It needs the cooperation of God and human beings.
On the other hand, DP defines sin as follows: "Sin is a violation of heavenly law which is committed when a person forms a common base with Satan, thus setting a condition for give and take action with him (72)." This passage shows that DP recognizes sin in relations of God, human beings and Satan while BPC deals with it in the relationship only between God and man. Consequently, while BPC comes to insist on the restoration by faith, DP has the concept of restoration through indemnity. These differences influence the two doctrines of Restoration very much.
The Principle of Restoration
As compared with DP, the view of Restoration in BPC is not as rich in content, because it has no concept of indemnity. Rather, it is close to chapter 3 in DP, "Eschatology and Human History."
We will now discuss some different points between the two doctrines.
The view of history
Both DP and BPC argue that history can be regarded as the process to restore the ideal world. However, the processes of history in the two doctrines are totally different from each other. Only the goal, "the ideal world", is the same. Fig. 9 shows Kim's view of history. Kim analyzes Biblical history from the political viewpoint. The Jewish political system had become corrupted, as fig. 9 shows (theocracy -- democracy -- monarchy). [Kim insists that politic system of the period of the Judges is similar with democracy.] According to Kim, theocracy is the ideal politic system. Therefore Christ came in the extremely corrupted age to save humankind directly. The history after Christ is restoring Israelite history (monarchy -- democracy). The final ideal is a theocratic world.
On the other hand, Fig. 10 offers a simple explanation of the Unificationist view of history. Israelite society developed its political system as in Fig.10 (clan- feudalism-monarchy-democracy) to receive Christ. After receiving Christ, the heavenly kingdom on earth starts. However, due to the Israelite faithlessness, God's plan collapsed. Christian history of 2000 years was the restoration of the 2000 years of Israelite history.
Clearly the diverging interpretations of the Cross cause the differences between the two views. There are some unreasonable points in the view of BPC. First, Kim insists that the political system of the period of Judges is like democracy, because the Judges were chosen by the will of the people. However, according to the Bible, three Judges, Ehud, Gideon and Samson, among five major Judges, were clearly chosen by God. Also, According to Kim, the Israelites were governed by theocracy. In fact, Moses was a great leader chosen by God. However, how does he interpret the period of slavery before Moses? Besides, Saul and David were also chosen by God, like Moses. From this, I cannot help affirming that Kim misinterpreted Biblical history in order to justify his view.
Kim insists that people will come to seek for the eternal Gospel (Rev 14:6) when God restores the world. It is the truth which reveals the new view of life. Namely it teaches how to restore the relationship of God and man and how to restore eternal life (826). Moreover, the eternal Gospel causes the unification of all religions (841). Kim says that the eternal Gospel has to be the basic principle based on the Bible. He believes that his book, the Basic Principle of Christianity, is the eternal Gospel (47).
DP also refers to new truth which is called the "Completed Testament word" (184). DP explains the necessity and mission of this truth in the introduction. Moreover, the introduction concludes that Rev. Moon reveals the new truth. These expressions regarding the new truth are very similar to each other. However, there are at least two different points. One is that while DP does not regards the Bible as the truth itself:
We must understand that the verses in the Bible are only one means of expressing the truth and are not the truth itself. The New Testament is but an interim textbook given to enlighten the people of two thousand years ago, whose spiritual and intellectual levels were far lower than today (104)
One the other hand, BPC considers the Bible as the truth itself. However, since people could not understand it, the eternal Gospel based on the Bible is necessary to understand the basic principle of Christianity. Therefore, as compared with BPC, DP has a tendency to go beyond the Bible.
The other different point is that DP clearly mentions that Christ at the Second Advent brings the new truth which may be called the Completed Testament (184). Therefore, DP clearly declares that Rev. Moon is the Christ of the Second Advent. Did Kim regard himself as the Messiah? At least, his book, BPC does not mention that Christ at the Second Advent is a human being. Kim does not discuss the issue of the Second Advent at all. His conclusion is the completion of restoration by the Holy Spirit and the eternal Gospel.
By analyzing the Basic Principle of Christianity (BPC) from a Unification perspective, we have discovered some interesting points. This paper, I believe, has allowed to present enough information to prove the authenticity and superiority of the Divine Principle (DP) as compared with BPC.
First, in the Principle of Creation, the theoretical structures of two doctrines are similar: both two "the Principles of Creation" reveal the view of God and them discusses the fundamental questions of human life and the universe. Also, both doctrines emphasize the necessity to perfect individual character (perfected individuals have divine natures). However, the two views of God are quite different. The view of God in BPC is based on the doctrine of the Trinity. DP introduces the new concept of the dual characteristics of God. Moreover, DP has some significant unique fundamental concepts: give and take action, the four position foundation, the portion of human responsibility, etc. Some other unique basic points forms the characteristics of DP as well: the androgynous God, the heart of God, the significance of family etc. Hence, DP has these remarkable different points from BPC in doctrine of Creation.
Both doctrines of the Fall interpret Adam and Eves Fall as a sexual crime initiated by an angel whose name is Lucifer. Some spiritual groups in Korean Christianity during World War II received similar revelations. Therefore, this similarity between DP and BPC should not be regarded as a plagiarism of one by the other. Rather, each doctrine has unique points which are caused by the basic difference in the doctrine of Creation (human responsibility, give and take action etc.) One is that the doctrine of the Fall in BPC is close to a dualism of good and evil. BPC distinguishes the angel's fall from the human Fall and stresses that evil spirit existed as standing against God before the universe was created. Moreover, evil spirit caused the human Fall and used human beings to destroy God's will and to create his world. On the other hand, DP focuses on the human responsibility and the relationship between God, Satan and human beings. Angels also fell at the same time as human beings. In addition, with regard to the sexual misconduct of the angel and Eve, DP insists that it was a spiritual relationship, but BPC regards it as a physical misconduct. These different points in the doctrine of the Fall lead to the difference in two doctrines of Salvation, namely the Principle of Restoration.
Both DP and BPC regards salvation as the restoration of Eden, i.e., the situation before the Fall. Both doctrines insist that Jesus came as the second Adam to restore the failure of the first Adam. While, from this aspect, DP regards Jesus not as God, but as a man who was to complete the purpose of Creation, BPC insists, like orthodoxy, that Jesus was God and came to be crucified to restore a righteous relationship between man and God. Moreover, since BPC has no concepts of indemnity, "the Principle of Restoration" in BPC is closer to "the Eschatology" in DP. Therefore, the view of history in BPC is not very rich as compared with the historical parallels of DP. Moreover, as already mentioned, in the main discussion, the view of history in BPC has some unreasonable points that are brought in by Kim in order to justify his theology.
BPC has some aspects that are similar to DP. It has the same theoretical structure (Creation--the Fall-- Restoration). Also, there is some unique terminology that is similar. Moreover both doctrines regard the human Fall as a sexual misconduct involving the Archangel Lucifer. The views of the ideal world in both doctrines are also similar. Therefore, the two doctrines look similar at a first glance. However, these similarities only prove that the two doctrines appeared in the same religious school and in the same culture background. In other words, the two doctrines have the same roots. However, on the other hand, the essences of the two teaching are quite different. These differences are caused by the unique concepts in the doctrine of Creation of DP: give and take action, the four position foundation, the portion of the human responsibility, etc. As a result, these unique basic concepts of DP make the doctrine of Restoration much richer and much clearer.
Hence, it can be concluded that DP is not a plagiarism of Peak Moon Kim's PBC. Rather, when we read BPC deeply, we notice that Kim also knew the Unificationist view. Kim sometimes opposes some Unification doctrines intentionally and artificially in his book: the view of the Cross, the failure of John the Baptist, the spiritual Fall of the angel and Eve, the human Fall in the stage of imperfection stage, etc. On the other hand, we can suspect that Kim plagiarized some Unificationist concepts, because BPC interpolates two unique concepts of Unificationist view quite unnaturally: the angel's motivation regarding Eves Fall and the androgynous nature of God. Therefore, we can conclude that BPC and DP were written at the same period and were influenced by each other.
Peak Moon Kim, in BPC, has tried to theorize the religious experiences of the spiritual groups in Korean Christianity by basing his explanation on orthodox theology. On the other hand, DP was developed and formed by basing on the new concepts discovered by Rev. Moon. These new and unique concepts of DP will greatly contribute to contemporary theology.
Choi Chung Hun. The Biography of Peak Moon Kim . Soul: HAS-UWC, 1997.
Kim, Young Oon. Unification Theology. Tokyo: Kogensya, 1985.
Kim, Peak Moon. The Basic Principle of Christianity. Soul: Irusongdo, 1958.
Chryssides, George D, The advent of Sum Myung Moon. New York: St Martins Press, 1991.
Moon, Sun Myung. The selection of Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Words, Vols.12, 13 ,19, 23, 38 ,47,50,52. Soul: Songhaesha.
Exposition of the Divine Principle. New York: HAS-UWC, 1996.
Borg, Marcus J. The God We Never Knew. New York: Haper Collins Publisher. 1997
The New International Version Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1995
The Table of Contents of the Basic Principle of Christianity
The Mission and History of this book
The Characteristic and the Theological Position of This Book
The points of this book to notice
Part 1 The Principle of Creation
Part 2 The Principle of Fall
Part 3 The Principle of Restoration
Part 1 The Principle of Creation
Chapter 1 The Origin of Creation (The view of God in pre-Creation)
Section 1 The Origin of Creation and Subjects of Theological Study
1. The Cause and the Significance of Creation
2. The Origin of Creation and the Theory of the beginning of the Universe
Section 2 The view of pre-Creation God
1. The Existence of pre-Creation God
2. The Worldview of Pre-Creation God
3. The Trinity of Pre-Creation God
Chapter 2 The Principle of Creation (The view of God in the starting period of creation)
Section 1 The system of Creation
1. The System of the Manifestation of the Character of the Creator
The system of Creation by "the Word"
2. The System of Formation of Creatures
The system of Creation by "the Light"
3. The System of Realization of Creation
The system of Creation by "the Life"
Section 2 The Reason of Creation
1. The Creation of Time by "the Light"
2. The Creation of Space by "the Word"
3. The Creation of Humans by "the Life"
Section 3 The truth of Creation
The Relationship between the Principle for Existence and Divine nature
1. The Relationship between the Origin for Existence and Dominion
2. The Relationship between the Existence and Vocation
3. The Relationship between the rule for Existence and Order
Section 4 Creation and the Trinity_The definition of the Trinity
1. The First Person
The Divinity of the Father
2. The Second Person
The Divinity of the Son
3. The Third Person
The Divinity of the Holy Spirit
The Existence and Function of the triune God from the Historical Viewpoint
Chapter 3 The World of Creation ( the Universe and the View of God)
Section 1 The Essence of the Created Human Race
1. The Spiritual Essence
Basic Human Rights
2. The Human Character
Basic Human Character
Section 2 Created Humans and Basic Ethics
The Basic Ethics of Christianity
1. The Ethics for Existence and the Divine Order
The Divine Order of the Fruit of Good and Evil
2. The Ethics for life and the Mission
The Blessing and Mission
3. The Ethics for Order and the Commandment
The Sabbath Day and the Commandment
Section 3 Universal law
The Environment for Existence and Natural Law
1. The Law of Rotation of Day and Night
The Eternal Law to Maintain Existence
2. The Law of Good and Evil
The Law of the Development
3. The Law of Reciprocal Relativity between Heaven and Earth (yang and yin)
The Resultant Law in Real World
Part 2 The Principle of the Fall
Chapter 1 The Origin of Evil
Section 1 The Basic Definition of Evil
1. The Character Causing Evil
2. The Metaphysical Reality of Evil
3. Psychological Occurrence of Evil
Psychology of the Angel and Psychological Origin
Section 2 The Fall of the Angel
1. The Cause of the Fall (Evil Character)
The Fall of the Angel and the Origin of Evil
2. The Fallen Angel (Evil Spirit)
The Origin of Evil Spirits
3. The Nature of the World of Evil Spirits
The Worldview of Evil
Chapter 2 The Principle of the Fall
Introduction The Definition of the Fall
Section 1 The Trinity of Evil Spirits
1. The Characters of Three Persons
2. The Functions of Three Persons
3. Three Persons of the Trinity of Evil Spirit
Section 2 The History of the Fall in Eden
The Origin of the Human Fall
1. The Separation of the Three Powers in Eden_God, Man and Demon
2. The Identity of the Fruit of Good and Evil
3. The Crime of the Fruit of Good and Evil
Serpent and Eve
Section 3 The Sin of the Progenitor of Humankind
The Religious Significance of the Fall
1. The Betrayal toward God
From the Point of Heavenly Ethics
2. The Violation toward God
From the Point of Order Relationship
3. The Separation from God
From the Point of the Mission
Section 4 The Steps of the Fall
The Process of the Fall
1. The Fall of spirituality
The Fall of Adam's Spirituality
2. The Fall of Human Character
The Fall of Cain's Character
3. The Fall of the Physical Body
The Fall of Cain's Descendents and the Nature of the Flesh
Chapter 3 The Fallen World
Section 1 Physical Body
The Value of the Physical Body from the Religious Viewpoint
1. The Opportunity of Faith
2. The Opportunity to Fulfill the Desire
Object to strive
3. The Medium of Eternal Life
Section 2 The Definition of Sin
1. The Identity of Sin
2. The Decision of Sin
The Principle of the Decision of Sin
The Logical Steps of the Decision of Sin
Section 3 The Definition of Death
1. The Reality of Death
2. The Origin and the Significance of Death
3. Spiritual Death and the Significance of Spiritual Salvation
Section 4 The Definition of Judgment
1. The Object of the Judgment and the Origin
2. The Basic Rule of Judgment
3. The Judgment and the Compensation
Part 3 The Principle of Restoration
Chapter 1 Christology
Definition of Immanuel Religion
Section 1 The Incarnation
1. The Conception by Holy Spirit
2. The Incarnation of "the Word"
3. Only begotten Son
Section 2 The Functions of Christ
1. Divine Function of Christ
2. Hunan Function of Christ
Christ and Cross
Section 3 The Cross
1. The Historical Significance of the Cross
2. The Real Significance of the Cross
The relationship of the Redemption
3. Holy Communion
The Effect of the Cross
Chapter 2 The Doctrine of Christianity
Section 1 Faith
1. The Historical Origin of Faith
The Birth and the Origin of Faith
2. The Real Significance of Faith
The Process of Faith
3. The Object of Christian Faith
The System of Faith
4. Theory of the Character formed by Faith
The Essence of Faith
5. The Basic Object of the doctrine of Christian Faith
Section 2 Salvation
1. The Principle of Redemption
The Decision of Sin and Forgiveness of Sin
2. The Principle of Salvation of Spirit
The Principle of Eternal Life
Chapter 3 The Principle of Restoration
(The Significance of Restoration)
Section 1 The Demonstration of Restoration
1. The Demonstration from the Viewpoint of Divine Sprit
The Religious Definition of Immanuel
2. The Demonstration from the Viwpoint of Human Character
Section 2 The World of Restoration
1. The Restoration from the viewpoint of Spirit
The View of God of Restoration
2. The Restoration from the viewpoint of Human Character
The View of Life of Restoration
1. The Worldview of Restoration
New Heaven and New Earth